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Glossary of Terms

Acid
a substance which releases hydrogen ions when dissolved in water. Most acids will dissolve the common metals and will react with a base to form a neutral salt and water.
Acid rain
atmospheric precipitation with a pH below 3.6 to 5.7. Burning of fossil fuels for heat and power is the major factor in the generation of oxides of nitrogen and sulfur, which are converted into nitric and sulfuric acids washed down in the rain. Think Coal Fire Plants.
Acidity
The capacity of water or a water solution to neutralize an alkali or base.
Aerosol
aerosols are tiny particles suspended in the air. Some occur naturally‚ See Hawaii volcanoes, . (Inhibitor) A product that uses compressed gas to spray the thin film from its container.
Alloy steel
steel with modified properties made by combining iron with one or more elements in addition to carbon.
ASTM
American Society for Testing and Materials
Atmospheric corrosion
the gradual degradation or alteration of a material by contact with substances present in the atmosphere, such as oxygen, carbon dioxide, water vapor, etc.
Austenitic Stainless Steel
are the most common and familiar types of stainless steel. They are most easily recognized as nonmagnetic.
Carbon dioxide
a gas present in the atmosphere and formed by the decay of organic matter; Used as a propellant.
Carbon steel
steel that has properties made up mostly of the element carbon which relies on carbon content for structure. Most steel produced in the world is carbon steel.
Chlorides
salts of chloride are generally soluble. High concentrations contribute to corrosion problems.
Chlorine
a widely used gas used in the disinfection of water and an oxidizing agent for organic matter.
Coal-Fired Power Plants
Coal fired units produce electricity by burning coal in a boiler to heat water to produce steam. Most plants use coal that contains sulfur, when the sulfur vapor is emitted from the smoke stack it reacts with humidity and creates acid rain.
Conductivity
a) a material property relating heat flux (heat transferred per unit area per unit time) to a temperature difference. b) The property of a water or soil sample to transmit electric current (inverse of resistivity) under a set of standard conditions.
Contamination
For the purpose of our discussions, Lektro-Tech S is a dry finish thatwill not attract or hold dirt or debris.
Cooling tower
structure in a power plant used to remove heat from cooling water from the condenser. The cooling tower prevents thermal pollution of lakes and rivers.
Corrosion fatigue
the process in which a metal fractures prematurely under conditions of simultaneous corrosion and repeated cyclic loading at lower stress levels or fewer cycles than would be required in the absence of the corrosive environment. Corrosion potential: the potential of a corroding surface in an electrolyte relative to a reference electrode measured under open-circuit conditions.
Corrosion product
substance formed as a result of corrosion.
Corrosion rate
the amount of corrosion occurring in unit time. (For example, mass change per unit area per unit time; penetration per unit time).
Corrosion resistance
ability of a metal to withstand corrosion in a given corrosion system.
Converter
a device for changing one substance or form or state into another.
Crevice corrosion
localized corrosion of a metal surface at, or immediately adjacent to, an area that is shielded from full exposure to the environment because of close proximity between the metal and the surface of another material.
De-alloying
De-alloying is an electrochemical reaction in which one element constituting an alloy is selectively separated and removed from the alloy, causing deterioration of its essential properties.
Degrease
to remove oil or grease from the surface of the workpiece.
Deterioration
A gradual decline, as in quality and serviceability.
Dieletric
A medium or substance that transmits electric force without conduction; an insulator.
Erosion
the progressive loss of material from a solid surface due to mechanical interaction between that surface and a fluid, a multi-component fluid, or solid particles carried with the fluid.
Evaporation rate
the quantity of of liquid that is evaporated in a unit of time.
Exfoliation
corrosion that proceeds laterally from the sites of initiation along planes parallel to the surface, generally at grain boundaries, forming corrosion products that force metal away from the body of the material. giving rise to a layered appearance.
Failure
an item of equipment has suffered a failure when it is no longer capable of fulfilling one or more of its intended functions. An item does not need to be completely unable to function to have suffered a failure.
Fatigue strength
the maximum stress that can be sustained for a specified number of cycles without failure, the stress being completely reversed within each cycle unless otherwise stated.
Fatigue wear
wear of a solid surface caused by fracture arising from material fatigue.
Ferritic Steel
These steels contain less than 0.10% carbon and are magnetic. The fact that they can’t be hardened via heat treatment and don’t weld to a high standard limits the use of these metals somewhat, but they are still suitable for a wide range of applications.
Filiform corrosion
corrosion that occurs under some coatings in the form of randomly distributed threadlike filaments. (a special form of crevice corrosion)
Film
a thin, not necessarily visible, layer of material.
Flakes
short, discontinuous internal fissures in wrought metals attributed to stresses produced by localized transformation and decreased solubility of hydrogen during cooling after hot working. In a fracture surface, flakes appear as bright silvery areas; on an etched surface, they appear as short, discontinuous cracks.
Flat-rolled steel
steel processed on rolls with flat faces as opposed to grooved or cut faces. Flat-rolled products include sheet, strip and tin plate, among others.
Free corrosion potential
corrosion potential in the absence of net electrical current flowing to or from the metal surface.
Fretting corrosion
the deterioration at the interface between contacting surfaces as the result of corrosion and slight oscillatory slip between the two surfaces.
Friction
the reaction force resulting from surface interaction and adhesion during sliding. The friction Coefficient is defined as the friction force divided by the load.
Functional failure
The inability of an item of equipment to fulfill one or more of its functions.
Galvanic corrosion
accelerated corrosion of a metal because of an electrical contact with a more noble metal or nonmetallic conductor in a corrosive electrolyte.
General corrosion
a form of deterioration that is distributed more or less uniformly over a surface; see uniform corrosion.
Halogens
The halogens or halogen elements are a group in the periodic table consisting of five chemically related elements:fluorine (F), chlorine (Cl), bromine (Br), iodine (I), and astatine (At). The artificially created element 117 (ununseptium) may also be a halogen. In the modern IUPAC nomenclature
Humidity test
a corrosion test involving exposure of specimens at controlled levels of humidity and temperature.
Hydrophobic
lacking an affinity for, repelling, or failing to absorb or adsorb water
Industrial atmosphere
an atmosphere in an area of heavy industry with soot, fly ash, and sulfur compounds as the principal constituents.
Inert
In chemistry, the term inert is used to describe a substance that is not chemically reactive.
Inhibitor
a chemical substance or combination of sub-stances that, when present in the proper concentration and forms in the environment, prevents or reduces corrosion
Inorganic
being or composed of matter other than hydrocarbons and their derivatives, or matter that is not of plant or animal origin. contrast with organic.
Intergranular corrosion
preferential corrosion at or adjacent to the grain boundaries of a metal or alloy.
Internal oxidation
the formation of isolated particles of corrosion products beneath the metal surface. (This occurs as the result of preferential oxidation of certain alloy constituents by inward diffusion of oxygen, nitrogen, sulfur, etc.).
Localized corrosion
corrosion at discrete sites, for example, pining, crevice corrosion, and stress corrosion cracking.
Lubricant
any substance interposed between two surfaces for the purpose of reducing the friction or wear between them
Martensitic Stainless Steel
Stainless steels may be classified by their crystalline structure into three main types: Austenitic, Ferritic and Martensitic. Martensitic stainless steels can be high[1] or are low carbon steels built around the Type 410 composition of iron, 12% chromium, and 0.12% carbon. They are usually tempered and hardened.
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)
information sheet that lists any hazardous substance that comprises one percent or more of the product's total volume. Also lists procedures to follow in the event of fire, explosion, leak or exposure to hazardous substance by inhalation, ingestion or contact with skin or eyes. Coatings manufacturers are required to provide retailers with an MSDS for every product they sell to the retailer. Sales clerks should make MSDS available to retail customers. See SDS
Medium
a material used in a filter bed to form a barrier to the passage of certain suspended solids or dissolved molecules.
Microbiologically Influenced Corrosion
sometimes called Microbial Corrosion or Bio corrosion refers to corrosion that is affected by the action of microorganisms in the environment.
Mil
One thousandth of an inch.
MIL SPEC
A United States defense standard, often called a military standard, "MIL-STD", "MIL-SPEC", or (informally) "MilSpecs", is used to help achieve standardization objectives by the U.S. Department of Defense.
Mineral spirits
paint thinner. Solvent distilled from petroleum.
Moisture
water in the liquid or vapor phase.
Molecule
the simplest combination of atoms that will form a specific chemical compound; the smallest particle of a substance which will still retain the essential composition and properties of that substance, and which can be broken down only into atoms and simpler substances.
Neutralizer
A common designation for alkaline materials such as calcite (calcium carbonate) or magnesia (magnesium oxide) used in the neutralization of acid waters.
Nonvolatile
the portion of a coating left after the solvent evaporates; sometimes called the solids content.
Normal stress
the stress component perpendicular to a plane on which forces act.
Organic matter
substances of or derived from plant or animal matter. Organic matter is characterized by its carbon-hydrogen structure.
Overspray
sprayed paint that misses the area being painted and falls upon the surrounding surface. Can cause gloss loss with gloss paints or mottling with flats paints.
Oxidation
loss of electrons by a constituent of a chemical reaction. (Also refers to the corrosion of a metal that is exposed to an oxidizing gas at elevated temperatures.
pH
a measure of the acidity or alkalinity of a solution; the negative logarithm of the hydrogen-ion activity; it denotes the degree of acidity or basicity of a solution. at 25ºC, 7.0 is the neutral value. Decreasing values below 7.0 indicate increasing acidity; increasing values above 7.0, increasing basicity.
Pig iron
the product of the blast furnace, when cast in a pig bed or in a pig-casting machine. It derives its name from the fact that the channel or runner leading from the furnace branched out into side channels called sows, and then into smaller channels called pigs. Pig iron today is sold on chemical analysis.
Pitting
corrosion of a metal surface, confined to a point or small area, that takes the form of cavities.
Poultice corrosion
a term used in the automotive industry to describe the corrosion of vehicle body parts due to the collection of road salts and debris on ledges and in pockets that are kept moist by weather and washing. Also called deposit corrosion or attack.
Precious metal
one of the relatively scarce and valuable metals: gold, silver, and the platinum-group metals. also called noble metal(s).
Pressure
force per unit of area.
Preventive maintenance
maintenance performed according to a fixed schedule involving the routine repair and replacement of machine parts and components.
PTFE
is a fluorocarbon solid, as it is a high-molecular-weight compound consisting wholly of carbon and fluorine. PTFE is hydrophobic: neither water nor water-containing substances wet PTFE, as fluorocarbons demonstrate mitigated London dispersion forces due to the high electronegativity of fluorine. PTFE has one of the lowest coefficients of friction against any solid.
Quality control
all aspects of the control of the spraying process including the surface preparation, spraying, control of thickness deposited and the oxide and porosity levels, surface finish and NDE checks as specified.
Reaction
a chemical transformation or change brought about by the interaction of two substances.
Relief valve (safety relief valve)
an automatic pressure relieving device actuated by the pressure upstream of the valve and characterized by opening pop action with further increase in lift with an increase in pressure over popping pressure.
Ringworm corrosion
localized corrosion frequently observed in oilwell tubing in which a circumferential attack is observed near a region of metal "upset".
Rust
a corrosion product consisting primarily of hydrated iron oxide. (A term properly applied only to ferrous alloys.)
SAE steel grades
This is a standard alloy numbering system; Carbon steels and alloy steels are designated by a four digit number, where the first digit indicates the main alloying element(s), the second digit indicates the secondary alloying element(s), and the last two digits indicate the amount of carbon, in hundredths of a percent (basis points) by weight. For example, a 1060 steel is a plain-carbon steel containing 0.60 wt% C.[4]
.Salt fog
ASTM B-117 test procedure that attempts to simulate the corrosive environment caused by road salt and marine spray.
Sand blasting (also grit blasting)
the process of surface cleaning and roughening that provides a mechanical "tooth" to aid coating adhesion. Media include aluminum oxide, even crushed walnut shells. The medium must be chosen to match the substrate and the foreign material on the substrate to be removed.
Scale
a deposit of mineral solids on the interior surfaces of water lines and containers, often formed when water containing the carbonates or bicarbonates of calcium and magnesium is heated. Oxide of iron that forms on the surface of steel after heating.
SDS
Safety Data Sheets, The Hazard Communication Standard (HCS) requires chemical manufacturers, distributors, or importers to provide Safety Data Sheets (SDSs) (formerly known as Material Safety Data Sheets or MSDSs) to communicate the hazards of hazardous chemical products.
Self-filling
The ability of our Corrosion Zero product to heal itself when the metal surface is scratched or damaged.
Shelf life
(inhibitor) the length of time any unopened container can be stored at the supplier recommended storage temperature and still retain the properties in both the unmixed and mixed states as required by the specification or advertised in the product data sheets.
Slumping, Sagging (or running, curtaining)
the unsightly gravity-driven flow that usually occurs on vertical surfaces. This is due to too much flow, often related to application technique or environment.
Solvent
the component of either a liquid or solid solution that is present to a greater or major extent; the component that dissolves the solute.
Specific Gravity
The ration of the density of any substance to the density of some other substance taken as a standard‚.In our case water. For a product to be a true Hydrophobic, that is to repel water, it makes sense that the specific gravity needs to be heavier than water.....water is 1.0
Stainless Steel
In metallurgy, stainless steel, also known as inox steel or inox from French "inoxydable", is a steel alloy with a minimum of 10.5%[1] chromium content by mass. Stainless steel does not READILY corrode, rust or stain with water as ordinary steel does. However, it is not fully stain-proof in low-oxygen, high-salinity, or poor air-circulation environments
Stress-corrosion cracking
a cracking process that requires the simultaneous action of a corrodent and sustained tensile stress. (This excludes corrosion-reduced sections which fail by fast fracture. It also excludes intercrystalline or transcrystalline corrosion which can disintegrate an alloy without either applied or residual stress.
Substrate
the parent or base material to which a coating is applied.
Surface preparation
cleaning and roughening the surface to be sprayed, usually by grit blasting. This is to increase the adhesion of the coating to the substrate
Sulfate
The sulfate or sulphate Salts, acid derivatives, and peroxides of sulfate are widely used in industry. Sulfates occur widely in everyday life. Sulfates are salts of sulfuric acid and many are prepared from that acid.
Surfactant
a surface-active agent; usually an organic compound whose molecules contain a hydrophilic group at one end and a lipophilic group at the other.
Threshold
a very low concentration of a substance in water. The term is sometimes used to indicate the concentration which can just be detected.’;;
Uniform corrosion
corrosion that proceeds at about the same rate over a metal surface.
Viscosity
the resistance of fluids to flow, due to internal forces and friction between molecules, which increases as temperature decreases
Water Displacing
The displacement method involves putting an object into water and carefully recording how much the water level rises. The amount that the water volume rises is equal to the volume of the object. See Hydrophobic
Wear
loss of material from a surface by means of some mechanical action.